New opportunities in drug repurposing
Problem being addressed
Drug repositioning (or drug repurposing) is a fundamental problem for the identification of new opportunities for the use of already approved or failed drugs.
A method based on a multi-relation unsupervised graph embedding model that learns latent representations for drugs and diseases so that the distance between these representations reveals repositioning opportunities. Once representations for drugs and diseases are obtained the researchers learn the likelihood of new links (that is, new indications) between drugs and diseases. Known drug indications are used for learning a model that predicts novel drug indications.
Advantages of this solution
The suggested model is significantly superior than predictive models built using contextual information produced by deep random walks, which may be particularly useful, as patient forums are being increasingly monitored for repositioning opportunities.
Solution originally applied in these industries
Possible New Application of the Work
Chemical and Materials Industry
Similar approach can be applicable in production of chemical products in order to come up with new usage of approved materials or reposition the solutions that previously didn't fit the purpose.
Drug repositioning can provide not only financial benefits, but reduce the amount of potential side effects during medical treatments and increase their efficiency. For instance, different biological solutions might be considered in order to chemically decrease the blood pressure such as removing the excess of salt from the body, thereby decreasing the tension in the vessels, or inhibiting the vasoconstrictive signalling of a hormone, or acting directly on the cells physically narrowing the vessels and preventing their unwanted action this way. Each of the aforementioned solutions requires a different mechanism of action. The same drug can have several mechanisms of action and therefore it can potentially play a multitude of roles by perturbing proteins involved in various biological processes, which are accountable for the drug polypharmacology.
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